"Navarathri" redirects here. For the Tamil film starring Sivaji Ganesan, see Navarathri (1964 film). For the Telugu film starring Akkineni Nageswara Rao, see Navarathri (1966 film).
Navratri celebrates either Durga or Rama victory over an evil demon, depending on the region
|Also called||Durga Puja|
|Observances||stage setting, prayers, plays, image immersion or bonfire|
|Begins||Ashvin Shukla Prathama|
|Ends||Ashvin Shukla Navami|
|2018 date||9 Oct, Tue – 17 Oct, Wed|
(Vijayadashami: 18 Oct, Thu)
|2019 date||29 Sep, Sun - 8 Oct, Tue |
(Vijayadashami: 8th Oct, Tue)
Navaratri (Sanskrit: नवरात्रि, literally "nine nights"), also spelled Navratri or Navarathri, is a nine nights (and ten days) Hindu festival, celebrated in the autumn every year. It is observed for different reasons and celebrated differently in various parts of the Indian subcontinent. Theoretically, there are four seasonal Navratri. However, in practice, it is the post-monsoon autumn festival called Sharada Navratri that is the most observed in the honor of the divine feminine Devi (Durga). The festival is celebrated in the bright half of the Hindu calendar month Ashvin, which typically falls in the Gregorian months of September and October.
In the eastern and northeastern states of India, the Durga Puja is synonymous with Navratri, wherein goddess Durga battles and emerges victorious over the buffalo demon to help restore Dharma. In the northern and western states, the festival is synonymous with "Rama Lila" and Dussehra that celebrates the battle and victory of god Rama over the demon king Ravana. In southern states, the victory of different goddesses, of Rama or Saraswati is celebrated. In all cases, the common theme is the battle and victory of Good over Evil based on a regionally famous epic or legend such as the Ramayana or the Devi Mahatmya.
Celebrations include stage decorations, recital of the legend, enacting of the story, and chanting of the scriptures of Hinduism. The nine days are also a major crop season cultural event, such as competitive design and staging of pandals, a family visit to these pandals and the public celebration of classical and folk dances of Hindu culture. On the final day, called the Vijayadashami or Dussehra, the statues are either immersed in a water body such as river and ocean, or alternatively the statue symbolizing the evil is burnt with fireworks marking evil's destruction. The festival also starts the preparation for one of the most important and widely celebrated holidays, Diwali, the festival of lights, which is celebrated twenty days after the Vijayadashami or Dussehra.
Etymology and nomenclature
The word Navratri means 'nine nights' in Sanskrit, nava meaning nine and ratri meaning nights.
Dates and celebrations
According to some Hindu texts such as the Shakta and Vaishnava Puranas, Navaratri theoretically falls twice or four times a year. Of these, the Sharada Navaratri near autumn equinox (September-October) is the most celebrated, and the Vasanta Navaratri near spring equinox (March-April) is next most significant to the culture of Indian subcontinent. In all cases, Navaratri falls in the bright half of the Hindu luni-solar months. The celebrations vary by region, leaving much to the creativity and preferences of the Hindu.
- Sharada Navaratri: the most celebrated of the four navaratris, named after sharada which means autumn. It is observed the lunar month of Ashvin (post-monsoon, September–October). In many regions the festival falls after autumn harvest, and in others during harvest.
- Vasanta Navaratri: the second most celebrated, named after vasanta which means spring. It is observed the lunar month of Chaitra (post-winter, March–April). In many regions the festival falls after spring harvest, and in others during harvest.[where?— see talk page]
The other two navratris are minor and observed regionally or by individuals:
- Magha Navaratri: in Magha (January–February), winter season. The fifth day of this festival is often independently observed as Vasant Panchami or Basant Panchami, the official start of spring in the Hindu tradition wherein goddess Saraswati is revered through arts, music, writing, kite flying. In some regions, the Hindu god of love, Kama is revered.
- Ashada Navaratri: in Ashadha (June–July), start of the monsoon season.
The Sharada Navratri commences on the first day (pratipada) of the bright fortnight of the lunar month of Ashvini. The festival is celebrated for nine nights once every year during this month, which typically falls in the Gregorian months of September and October. The exact dates of the festival are determined according to the Hindu luni-solar calendar, and sometimes the festival may be held for a day more or a day less depending on the adjustments for sun and moon movements and the leap year.
The festivities extend beyond goddess Durga and god Rama. Various other goddesses such as Saraswati and Lakshmi, gods such as Ganesha, Kartikeya, Shiva and Krishna are regionally revered. For example, a notable pan-Hindu tradition during Navratri is the adoration of Saraswati, the Hindu goddess of knowledge, learning, music and arts through Ayudha Puja. On this day, which typically falls on the ninth day of Navratri after the Good has won over Evil through Durga or Rama, peace and knowledge is celebrated. Warriors thank, decorate and worship their weapons, offering prayers to Saraswati. Musicians upkeep their musical instruments, play and pray to them. Farmers, carpenters, smiths, pottery makers, shopkeepers and all sorts of trades people similarly decorate and worship their equipment, machinery and tools of trade. Students visit their teachers, express respect and seek their blessings. This tradition is particularly strong in South India, but is observed elsewhere too.
To some, Navratri is a cultural and social festival which marks family time, along with the celebration of various performance arts. Navratri has been called the Hindu festival of dance.
Significance of Each Day
The festival is associated to the prominent battle that took place between Durga and demon Mahishasura and celebrates the victory of Good over Evil. These nine days are solely dedicated to Goddess Durga and her nine Avatars. Each day is associated to an incarnation of the goddess:
Day 1: Shailaputri
Known as Pratipada, this day is associated to Shailaputri( lit. Daughuter of Mountain), an incarnation of Parvati. It is in this form that the Goddess is worshiped as the consort of Shiva; she is depicted as riding a Bull, with a Trishul in her right hand and Lotus in left. Shailaputri represents the collective power of the Hindu Trinity- Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesh. The color of the day is Red, which depicts action and vigor.
Day 2: Brahmcharini
On Dwitiya, Goddess Brahmcharini, another incarnation of Parvati, is worshiped. In this form, Parvati became Sati, her unmarried self. Brahmcharini is worshiped for emancipation or moksha and endowment of peace and prosperity. Depicted as walking bare feet and holding a japamala and kamandalu in her hands, she symbolizes bliss and calm. The color of the day is Royal Blue which depicts calmness-cum-energy.
Day 3: Chandraghanta
Tritiya commemorates the worship of Chandraghanta- the name derived from the fact that after marrying Shiva, Parvati adorned her forehead with half-chandra(lit. moon). She is the embodiment of beauty and is also symbolic of bravery, and hence, the color of the day is Yellow.
Day 4: Kushmunda
Goddess Kushmunda is worshiped on Chaturthi. Believed to be the creative power of universe, Kushmunda is associated to the endowment of vegetation on earth and hence, the color of the day is Green. She is depicted as having eight arms and sits on a Lion.
Day 5: Skandmata
Skandmata, the goddess worshiped on Panchami, is the mother of Skand(or Kartikeya). The color Grey is symbolic of the transforming strength of a mother when her child is confronted to dangers. she is depicted riding a ferocious Lion, having four arms, and holding her baby.
Day 6: Katyayani
Born to a sage, Katya, she is an incarnation of Durga and is shown to exhibit courage which is symbolized by the color Orange. Known as the warrior goddess, she is considered one of the most violent forms of Goddess Parvati. In this avatar, the Devi rides a lion and has four hands.
Day 7: Kalratri
Considered the most ferocious form of Goddess Durga, Kali is revered on Saptmi. It is believed that Parvati removed her fair skin to kill the demons Sumbh and Nisumbh. The color of the day is White.
Day 8: Mahagauri
Mahagauri symbolizes intelligence and peace. The color associated to this day is Pink which depicts optimism.
Day 9: Sidhidatri
On the last day of the festival also known as Navami, people pray to Siddhidaatri. Sitting on a lotus, she is believed to possess and bestows all type of Siddhis. Here she has four hands.
Navaratri is celebrated in different ways throughout India. Some fast, others feast. Some revere the same Mother Goddess but different aspects of her, while others revere avatars of Vishnu, particularly of Rama. The Chaitra Navaratri culminates in Rama Navami on the ninth day, and the Sharada Navaratri culminates in Durga Puja and Dussehra.
The Rama Navami remembers the birth of Rama, preceded by nine days of Ramayana recital particularly among the Vaishnava temples. In the past, Shakta Hindus used to recite Durga's legends during the Chaitra Navaratri, but this practice around the spring equinox has been declining. For most contemporary Hindus, it is the Navaratri around the autumn equinox that is the major festival and the one observed. To Bengali Hindus and to Shakta Hindus outside of eastern and northeastern states of India, the term Navaratri implies Durga Puja in the warrior goddess aspect of Devi. In other traditions of Hinduism, the term Navaratri implies something else or the celebration of Hindu goddess but in her more peaceful forms such as Saraswati – the Hindu goddess of knowledge, learning, music and other arts. In Nepal, Navaratri is called Dasain, and is a major annual homecoming and family event that celebrates the bonds between elders and youngsters with Tika Puja, as well as across family and community members.
Eastern India and West Bengal
Main article: Durga Puja
The Navratri is celebrated as the Durga Puja festival in West Bengal. It is the most important annual festival to Bengali Hindus, and a major social and public event in eastern and northeastern states of India, where it dominates the religious life. The occasion is celebrated with thousands of temporary stages called pandals are built in community squares, roadside shrines and large Durga temples in West Bengal, Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, eastern Nepal, Assam, Tripura and nearby regions. It is also observed by some Shakta Hindus as a private, home-based festival. Durga Puja festival marks the battle of goddess Durga with the shape-shifting, deceptive and powerful buffalo demon Mahishasura, and her emerging victorious.
The last five days of Navratri mark the popular practices during Durga Puja. The festival begins with Mahalaya, a day where Shakta Hindus remember the loved ones who have died, as well the advent of warrior goddess Durga. The next most significant day of Durga Puja celebrations is the sixth day, called Shashthi where the local community welcome the goddess Durga Devi and festive celebrations are inaugurated. On the seventh day (Saptami), eighth (Ashtami) and ninth (Navami), Durga along with Lakshmi, Saraswati, Ganesha and Kartikeya are revered and these days mark the main Puja (worship) with recitation of the scriptures, the legends of Durga in Devi Mahatmya and social visits by families to elaborately decorated and lighted up temples and pandals (theatre like stages). After the nine nights, on the tenth day called Vijayadashami, a great procession is held where the clay statues are ceremoniously walked to a river or ocean coast for a solemn goodbye to Durga. Many mark their faces with vermilion (sindoor) or dress in something red. It is an emotional day for some devotees, and the congregation sings emotional goodbye songs. After the procession, Hindus distribute sweets and gifts, visit their friends and family members.
In North India, Navaratri is marked by the numerous Ramlila events, where episodes from the story of Rama and Ravana are enacted by teams of artists in rural and urban centers, inside temples or in temporarily constructed stages. This Hindu tradition of festive performance arts was inscribed by UNESCO as one of the "Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity" in 2008. The festivities, states UNESCO, include songs, narration, recital and dialogue based on the Hindu text Ramacharitmanas by Tulsidas. It is particularly notable in historically important Hindu cities of Ayodhya, Varanasi, Vrindavan, Almora, Satna and Madhubani – cities in Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh.
The festival and dramatic enactment of the virtues versus vices filled story is organized by communities in hundreds of small villages and towns, attracting a mix of audience from different social, gender and economic backgrounds. In many parts, the audience and villagers join in and participate spontaneously, some helping the artists, others helping with stage set up, create make-up, effigies and lights.
Navaratri has historically been a prominent ritual festival for kings and military of a kingdom. At the end of the Navratri, comes Dussehra, where the effigies of Ravana, Kumbhakarna, and Meghanada are burnt to celebrate the victory of good (Rama) over evil forces on Vijayadashami.
Elsewhere, during this religious observance, goddess Durga's war against deception and evil is remembered. A pot is installed (ghatasthapana) at a sanctified place at home. A lamp is kept lit in the pot for nine days. The pot symbolises the universe. The uninterrupted lit lamp symbolizes the Adishakti, i.e. Durga Devi.
In parts of Bihar, goddess Durga is revered during the autumn Navratri. In other parts, such near Sitamarhi close to Nepal border, the spring Navratri attracts a large Ramanavami fair which marks the birth of Lord Rama as well as a reverence for his wife Sita who legends place was born at Sitamarhi. It is the largest cattle trading fair, and attracts a large handicrafts market in pottery, kitchen and house ware, as well as traditional clothing. Festive performance arts and celebrations are held at the local Hindu temple dedicated to Sita, Hanuman, Durga, and Ganesha.
Navaratri festival in Gujarat is one of the main festivals. The traditional method includes fasting for a day, or partially every of the nine days such as by not eating grains or just taking liquid foods, in remembrance of one of nine aspects of Shakti goddess. The prayers are dedicated to a symbolic clay pot called garbo, as a remembrance of womb of the family and universe. The clay pot is lit, and this is believed to represent the one Atman (soul, self).
In Gujarat and nearby Hindu communities such as in Malwa, the garbo significance is celebrated through performance arts on all nine days. The most visible is group dances from villages to towns called Garba accompanied by live orchestra, seasonal raga, or devotional songs. It is a folk dance, where people of different background and skills join and form concentric circles. The circles can grow or shrink, reaching sizes of 100s, sometimes 1000s of people, dancing and clapping in circular moves, in their traditional costumes, at the same time. The garba dance sometimes deploys dandiyas (sticks), coordinated movements and striking of sticks between the dancers, and teasing between the genders. Post dancing, the group and the audience socializes and feasts together. Regionally, the same thematic celebration of community songs, music and dances on Navaratri is called garbi or garabi.
In the temples of Goa, on the first day of the Hindu month of Ashwin, in temples (and some households), a copper pitcher is installed surrounded by clay in which nine varieties of food grains are placed inside the sanctum sanctorum of Devi and Krishna temples. The nine nights are celebrated by presenting devotional songs, and through religious discourses. Artists arrive to perform folk musical instruments. Celebrations include placing the goddess image in a specially-decorated colourful silver swing, known as Makhar in Konkani and for each of the nine nights, she is swung to the tune of temple music (called as ranavadya) and devotees singing kirtan and waving lamps. This is locally called Makharotsav.
The last night of the Goa Navaratri festival is a major celebration and attracts larger participation. It is locally called the maha arati.
In Karnataka, Navaratri is observed by lighting up Hindu temples, cultural sites and my regal processions. It is locally called Dasara, and it is the state festival (Nadahabba) of Karnataka. Of the many celebrations, the Mysuru Dasara is a major one and is popular for its festivities.
The contemporary Dasara festivities at Mysore are credited to the efforts of King Raja Wodeyar I in 1610. On the ninth day of Dasara, called Mahanavami, the royal sword is worshipped and is taken on a procession of decorated elephants and horses. The day after Navratri, on the Vijayadashami day, the traditional Dasara procession is held on the streets of Mysore. An image of the Goddess Chamundeshwari is placed on a golden saddle (hauda) on the back of a decorated elephant and taken on a procession, accompanied by tableaux, dance groups, music bands, decorated elephants, horses and camels.
Ayudha Puja is dedicated to Saraswati goddess, on the ninth day of Dasara, where military personnel upkeep their weapons and families upkeep their tools of livelihood, both offering a prayer to Saraswati as well as Parvati and Lakshmi. Another Navaratri tradition in Karnataka has been decorating a part of one's home with art dolls called Gombe or Bombe, similar to Golu dolls of Tamil Nadu. An art themed Gaarudi Gombe, featuring folk dances which incorporate these dolls, is also a part of the celebration.
In Kerala and in some parts of Karnataka three days: Ashtami, Navami, and Vijaya Dashami of Sharada Navarathri are celebrated as Sarasvati Puja in which books are worshiped. The books are placed for Puja on the Ashtami day in own houses, traditional nursery schools, or in temples. On Vijaya Dashami day, the books are ceremoniously taken out for reading and writing after worshiping Sarasvati. Vijaya Dashami day is considered auspicious for initiating the children into writing and reading, which is called Vidyāraṃbhaṃ.
The Vidyarambham day tradition starts with the baby or child sitting on the lap of an elderly person such as the grandfather, near images of Saraswati and Ganesha. The elder writes a letter and the child writes the same with his or her index finger. This Hindu tradition is so popular that Christian organizations have copied it and ritually observe it inside many churches. However, Navratri traditions of Hindus is not the only tradition observed by Kerala Christians, many other Hindu ritual traditions are celebrated in Churches.
The Navratri celebrations vary across Maharashtra, and the specific rites differ between regions even if they are called the same and dedicated to the same deity. The most common celebration begins on the first day of Navaratri with Ghatasthapana (sthapana of a ghat), which literally means "mounting of a jar". On this day, rural households mount a copper or brass jar, filled with water, upon a small heap of rice kept on a wooden stool (pat). Additionally, with the jar, is typically placed other agriculture symbols such as turmeric root, leaves of mango tree, coconut and major staple grains (usually eight varieties). A lamp is lighted symbolizing knowledge and household prosperity, and kept alight through the nine nights of Navaratri.
The women worship the pot for nine days by offering rituals and a garland of flowers, leaves, fruits, dry-fruits, etc. with a naivedya, and water is offered in order to get the seeds sprouted. Some families also celebrate Kaali pujan on days 1 and 2, Laxmi pujan on days 3, 4, 5 and Saraswati puja on days 6, 7, 8, 9 along with Ghatasthapana. On the eighth day, a "Yajna" or "Hom" is performed in the name of Goddess Durga. On ninth day, the Ghat puja is done and the Ghat is dissolved after taking off the sprouted leaves of the grains. In many families, a woman from Matang community is called and offered food and blessings are sought from her. She is considered as a form of the Goddess "Matangi".
Two Durga Puja pandals in Kolkata during Navratri
नवरात्रि त्यौहार पर निबंध Navratri Festival Essay in Hindi
2018 नवरात्रि त्यौहार पर निबंध Navratri Festival Essay in Hindi
2018 नवरात्रि कब है?
गुरुवार 14 अक्टूबर से 19 अक्टूबर, 2018
नवरात्रि 2018 निबंध Navratri Festival Essay
नवरात्रि का त्यौहार भारत में बहुत ही धूम-धाम से मनाया जाता है। नवरात्रि 9 दिनों का एक बड़ा त्यौहार है जिसमें देवी दुर्गा की पूजा-अर्चना बहुत ही उत्सव के साथ की जाती है। नवरात्रि एक संस्कृत शब्द है जिसमें ‘नव’ का अर्थ है नौ दिन तथा ‘रात्रि’ अर्थ है रात।
भारत में नवरात्रि का त्यौहार 9 से 10 दिनों तक बहुत ही बड़े तौर पर मनाया जाता है। नवरात्रि त्यौहार के आख़िरी दिन विजयदशमी या दशहरा का उत्सव मनाया जाता है। रामायण के अनुसार इसी दिन भगवान श्रीराम ने रावण का वध किया था।
नवरात्रि त्यौहार के दौरान पूरे पारंपरिक तथा रीति रिवाज के साथ देवी दुर्गा मां के 9 अवतारों की पूजा की जाती है। माता दुर्गा के 9 रूपों के नाम हैं – शैलपुत्री, ब्रह्मचारिणी, चन्द्रघंटा, कुष्मांडा, स्कंदमाता, कात्यायनी, कालरात्रि, महागौरी, सिद्धिदात्री।
नवरात्रि का त्यौहार प्रतिवर्ष 5 बार मनाया जाता है। हिंदू कैलेंडर के अनुसार चैत्र महीने में नवरात्रि त्यौहार को ‘वसंत नवरात्रि’ के रुप में मनाया जाता है जो आधुनिक युग के कैलेंडर के अनुसार मार्च के महीने में पड़ता है। वसंत नवरात्रि के नौवें दिन को राम नवमी के रुप में मनाया जाता है।
उसी प्रकार जून जुलाई के महीने में ‘गुप्त नवरात्रि’ मनाया जाता है। इस दिन को ‘गायत्री नवरात्रि’ के रूप में भी जाना जाता है। अक्टूबर और नवंबर के महीने में ‘शरद नवरात्रि’ मनाया जाता है जो हिंदू कैलेंडर के अनुसार अश्विन महीने के रूप में जाना जाता है।
हिंदू कैलेंडर के पौष महीने में ‘पौष नवरात्रि’ मनाया जाता है जो हो दिसंबर और जनवरी महीने में पड़ता है। अंत में जनवरी और फरवरी महीने के दौरान माघ महीने में माघ नवरात्रि मनाया जाता है।
2018 नवरात्रि का उत्सव Navratri Celebration
नवरात्रि त्यौहार के दौरान भक्त दिन में एक बार भोजन करके या कुछ लोग फल या मात्र पानी पीकर उपवास करते हैं या व्रत रखते हैं। भारत में अलग अलग नवरात्रि के कई रंग और रूप देखने को मिलते हैं। नवरात्रि पर कुछ जगह में है दशहरा पर्व का शुरुआत भी माना जाता है।
उत्तर भारत में कई जगहों पर नवरात्रि के नौवें दिन ‘कन्यापूजन’ भी नवरात्रि के दौरान लोग करते हैं। इस पूजा में 9 छोटी लड़कियों को देवी मां के नौ रूप मानकर उनकी पूजा की जाती है और साथ ही उन्हें हलवा, पूरी, मिठाईयां, खाने को दिया जाता है।
उसी प्रकार भारत के पूर्वी राज्यों जैसे पश्चिम बंगाल में जगह-जगह दुर्गा मां के पंडाल बनाए जाते हैं जहां भक्त दर्शन के लिए पहुंचते हैं। वहां पर माता दुर्गा की पूजा करते हैं और उनसे सुख शांति की कामना करते हैं। कई जगहों पर पारंपरिक नृत्य और गीत के कार्यक्रम भी आयोजित किए जाते हैं जहां हजारों की तादाद में लोग पहुंचते हैं। दसवें दिन पश्चिम बंगाल के लोग मां दुर्गा की मिट्टी के मूर्तियों को पानी में विसर्जन कर देते हैं।
भारत के पश्चिमी राज्यों मैं नवरात्रि का एक अलग ही रंग दिखता है जहां शाम के समय लोग दांडिया खेलते हैं। अगर हम आसान शब्दों में नवरात्री का महान पर्व का उल्लेख करें तो यह एक ऐसा त्यौहार है जो भारत के हर एक कोने में मनाया जाता है।
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